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Course Information

About this Course

This course is an introduction to the structures and physical properties of hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, amines and their derivatives. It also includes nomenclature, preparations, chemical reactions, chemical tests as well as usage and importance of some organic compounds and their derivatives.

Course Syllabus

Introduction to Organic Chemistry
3.1.1 Structure of carbon compounds
3.1.2 The nature of chemical bonding: Covalent bonding
3.1.3 Polar and nonpolar molecules
3.1.4 Intermolecular forces
3.1.5 Hybridization: sp3, sp2, sp
3.1.6 Functional groups
3.1.7 Empirical, molecular and structural formulae
3.1.8 Homolytic and heterolytic breaking of covalent bond
3.1.9 Homogenic and heterogenic formation of covalent bond
3.1.10 Structural isomerism: chain, position, functional group
3.1.11 Cis-trans isomerism

Hydrocarbon compounds
3.2.1 Alkane Structure and physical properties (boiling point and solubility) Nomenclature Preparation (hydrogenation of alkenes, hydrolysis of Grignard reagents) Alkane reactions (halogenation/free radical substitution, combustion) Sources and uses

Hydrocarbon compounds
3.2.2 Alkene
3.2.2 Alkene Structure and physical properties
(boiling point and solubility) Nomenclature Preparation (dehydration of alcohols,
dehydrohalogenation of haloalkanes) Reactions
- Addition (hydrogenation)
- Electrophilic addition (addition of
hydrogen halides (HX), hydration,
halogenation in inert solvent (eg. CCl4),
halogenation in water, addition of conc.
H2SO4, Markovnikov?s and anti-
Markovnikov's rule)
- Oxidation (ozonolysis, diol hydroxylation (Baeyer test) and C=C bond cleavage with acidified KMnO4)

Hydrocarbon compounds
3.2.3 Aromatic compounds Resonance structure, benzene ring
stabilization and physical properties Nomenclature Oxidation of alkylbenzene Addition under certain conditions
(hydrogenation and chlorination) Electrophilic aromatic substitution
(halogenation, nitration, sulphonation,
Friedel-Crafts acylation and Friedel-
Crafts alkylation) Effects of substituents on the reactivity
and orientation (activating group: ortho-
para directing effect and deactivating
group: meta directing effect) Uses of aromatic compounds

Hydroxyl compounds
3.3.1 Alcohol Structure, classification and physical properties (boiling point, solubility, acidity and basicity) Nomenclature Preparation
- hydration of alkenes
- hydrolysis of haloalkanes
- addition of Grignard reagents to
carbonyl compounds Reactions
- reaction with sodium
- esterification
- dehydration to alkene and ether
- reaction with hydrogen halide,
phosphorus halide and thionyl chloride)
- oxidation Chemical tests to identify primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols
- Lucas test
- oxidation test
- triiodomethane test Sources and uses of alcohols
3.3.2 Phenol Structure and physical properties Reactions
- with sodium and NaOH (acidity)
- electrophilic substitution (nitration,
halogenation, sulphonation)
- esterification Identification test with FeCl3(aq) Uses and importance of phenol

Carbonyl compounds
3.4.1 Classes: Aldehydes and ketones
3.4.2 Structure and physical properties (boiling point
and solubility)
3.4.3 Nomenclature
3.4.4 Preparation
- oxidation of alcohols
- ozonolysis of alkenes
- Friedel-Crafts acylation
3.4.5 Reactions
- oxidation (Tollen?s, Fehling?s & Schiff?s reagents)
- reduction
- nucleophilic addition (HCN, NaHSO3, water, alcohols, Grignard?s reagents, ammonia)
3.4.6 Haloform reaction
- triiodomethane test

Carboxylic acids and derivatives
3.5.1 Structure and physical properties (boiling point, Solubility and acidity)
3.5.2 Nomenclature
3.5.3 Preparation
- oxidation of 1? alcohols, aldehye and alkylbenzene
3.5.4 Reactions
- with metals
- neutralisation (with NaOH, NaHCO3, Na2CO3)
- formation of acid chloride (reaction with PCl3,PCl5, SOCl2)
- formation of acid anhydride (reaction with carboxylic acid, acid chloride)
- formation of ester (reaction with alcohol)
- formation of amide (reaction with ammonia, primary
and secondary amines)
- reduction to alcohols
- hydrolysis of carboxylic acid derivatives
3.5.5 Interconversion reactions

3.6.1 Structure, classification and physical properties
(boiling point, solubility and basicity)
3.6.2 Nomenclature
3.6.3 Reactions
- with acids
- acylation (with acid chloride, acid anhydride
and ester)